Self-mutilation

Definition

Self-mutilation, also called self-harm, self-injury or cutting, is the intentional destruction of tissue or alteration of the body done without the conscious wish to commit suicide , usually in an attempt to relieve tension.

Description

Self-mutilation has become an increasing problem among adolescents since the 1990s. Cutting one's skin with razors or knives is the most common pattern of self-mutilation. Other forms of self-harm include biting, hitting, or bruising oneself; picking or pulling at skin or hair; burning oneself with cigarettes, or amputating parts of the body. Self-mutilation can be episodic (infrequent) or repetitive. Episodic self-harm can progress to repetitive self-harm after as few as five or as many as 20 episodes.

Professional thinking about self-mutilation has evolved over the past 20 years. Before the 1990s, self-mutilation was often identified as a failed suicide attempt. This concept is no longer accepted. As of 2004 self-mutilation was not a specific diagnosis recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Instead, it is recognized as a feature of other psychiatric disorders. Some researchers dispute this designation and feel self-mutilation should be a separate diagnosis. Self-mutilation should not be confused with current fads for tattoos and body piercing . In some cases, however, it may be difficult to distinguish between an interest in these fads and the first indications of a disorder.

Demographics

It is estimated that one in every 100 individuals in the United States, or more than 2.5 million people, are self-mutilators. Girls are four times more likely to engage in self-harm than boys, with girls between the ages of 16 and 25 at highest risk, although many girls begin cutting in middle school (ages 12 or 13). At risk individuals also include those who have underlying psychiatric disorders. Up to half of individuals who are self-mutilators were sexually abused as children.

Causes and symptoms

It is not entirely clear why some individuals mutilate themselves. However, self-injury appears to give these people an immediate release from almost unbearable tension caused by anxiety , anger, or sadness. Some researchers ascribe this response to the release of certain chemicals in the body in response to pain . Like other addictive behaviors, self-mutilation gradually takes more and more destruction to achieve release. Some researchers separate self-mutilators into several groups, based on their psychological condition, motivation for harming themselves, and degree to which they practice self-injury.

The most common form of self-mutilation, and the one usually seen in adolescents, is impulsive self-mutilation consisting of superficial skin cutting and burning. Psychiatrists generally believe that this is a maladaptive form of self-help or self-preservation and is done to achieve release from almost unbearable psychic tension and to give the individual a feeling of control. It is often a feature of psychiatric disorders including the following:

  • borderline personality disorder
  • antisocial personality disorder
  • dissociative disorders
  • anorexia or bulimia
  • post traumatic stress syndrome
  • substance abuse
  • depression

Compulsive self-mutilation consists of repetitive hair pulling ( trichotillomania ), nail biting, and skin picking. It is often found in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Major self-mutilation is the least frequent form of self-harm. It involves infrequent episodes of destruction of large amounts of tissue, for example self-castration or self-amputation. Major self-mutilation occurs most often with psychotic or highly intoxicated individuals and occasionally with institutionalized mentally retarded individuals. It is also occasionally associated with autism , Tourette syndrome , and schizophrenia .

The symptoms of self-mutilation typically include wearing long-sleeved or baggy clothing, even in hot weather, and an unusual need for privacy. Self-mutilators are often hesitant to change their clothes or undress around others. In most cases the individual also shows signs of depression.

When to call the doctor

Parents and caregivers should consult a psychiatrist or psychotherapist with professional expertise in self-mutilation as soon as the behavior is discovered. Adolescents rarely do not outgrow this behavior. If left untreated, it can continue into adulthood.

Diagnosis

Self-mutilation is usually diagnosed by a psychiatrist or psychotherapist upon referral from a family member, physician, nurse, or social worker who has noticed scars, bruises , or other physical evidence of self-injury.

Treatment

Individuals who mutilate themselves should seek treatment from a therapist with some specialized training and experience with this behavior. Most self-mutilators are treated as outpatients, although some specialized inpatient programs for self-mutilators exist. A number of different treatment approaches are used with self-mutilators, including individual therapy, family therapy , and group therapy. Therapies focus on teaching self-awareness, alternate coping skills, behavior modification, and improved communication skills . Techniques may include journaling, music and art therapy, and role-playing.

Underlying psychological disorders are also treated with medication and/or psychotherapy. Although there are no medications specifically for self-mutilation, antidepressants are often given, particularly if the patient meets the diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. However, in October 2003, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued an advisory indicating that children being treated with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) for major depressive illness may be at higher risk for committing suicide. A similar warning was issued in the United Kingdom. Parents and physicians must weigh the benefits and risks of prescribing these medications for children on an individual basis.

Alternative treatment

Mindfulness training, which is a form of meditation, has been used to teach self-mutilators to observe and identify their feelings in order to have some control over them.

Prognosis

The prognosis depends on the presence and severity of other emotional disorders and history of sexual abuse and/or suicide attempts. In general, teenagers without a history of abuse or other disorders have a good prognosis. Patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and/or a history of attempted suicide are considered to have the worst prognosis.

Prevention

Some society-wide factors that influence self-mutilation, such as the sexual abuse of children and media portrayals of cutting, are difficult to change. Parents should emphasize self-respect and respect for one's body. In general, young people who have learned to express themselves in words or through art and other creative activities are less likely to deal with painful feelings by injuring their bodies.

Parental concerns

Parents should be alert to Internet sites and movies that promote and/or glorify self-mutilation as a way to cope with problems. Experts feel that some children may be induced to try this behavior as a coping mechanism because of the way it is presented in these media.

KEY TERMS

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) —A pattern of behavior characterized by impulsive acts, intense but chaotic relationships with others, identity problems, and emotional instability.

Dissociative disorders —A group of mental disorders in which dissociation is a prominent symptom. Patients with dissociative disorders have a high rate of self-mutilation.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) —A class of antidepressants that work by blocking the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain, thus raising the levels of serotonin. SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and paroxetine (Paxil).

See also Depressive disorders .

Resources

BOOKS

Milia, Diana. Self-Mutilation and Art Therapy. Herndon, VA: Kingsley Publishers, 2000.

Strong, Marilee, et al. A Bright Red Scream: Self-Mutilation and the Language of Pain. Collingdale, PA: DIANE Publishing Group, 2001.

Winkler, Kathleen. Cutting and Self-Mutilation: When Teens Injure Themselves. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publisher, 2003.

PERIODICALS

"Self-cutting is almost epidemic in adolescents." Pediatric News 36 (September 2002): 29.

"Self-Injury." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter –20 (March 2004): 14.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. –3615 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 200163007. Web site: http://www.aacap.org.

American Psychiatric Association. 1400 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. Web site: http://www.psych.org.

Focus Adolescent Services. Web site: http://www.focusas.com.

Tish Davidson, A.M. Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

User Contributions:

susan
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 6, 2006 @ 8:08 am
Although your article is a good one, it talks mainly about teenagers. What about adults? Older adults. I have burned myself so serverly at times that it hasn't helped to the way it usually makes me fell. Whitch is a little better. And yes I am in therapy. But when I get so down I need some kind of relief, and it's getting to where it's not working anymore. So give me an article about that!
Si
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 12, 2006 @ 9:21 pm
I've been a cutter for a number of years now. I havn't actually cut in over 3 months, but i still think about it all the time and the scars are a constant reminder. After awile, it's no longer a way to cope with feelings or anything of that sort, it becomes like a ciggerette, like and addiction. I've been tring to stop, and i've been doing it on my own. Without the help of ne professional. It started to scare me when the cuts would bleed more and more and leave deeper and darker scars... I knew i didn't want to die, and i know im taking that risk everytime i pick up ne thing i'd use to cut with. So now, yeah, i think about it all the time. But i know there's people out there that im hurting more than anyone has ever hurt me everytime i put it to my skin... And just bc i don't feel it at times, that doesn't mean my boyfriend, my friends, or my family can't feel it as well... and sometimes, people need to relise that... i know i did. And i know i may not over come it... but people need to know that a cutters not going to let any one in untill they find someone they can trust... and in our minds, you can't trust someone who thinks you're crazy... But people do need to know... because the pain helps you cope with... may stop then, but it'll come back, and it'll hurt twice as much...
chelsea k.
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 23, 2006 @ 4:16 pm
my name is chelsea and i have been cutting for five years now.The worse time i cut i had to get 76 stiches in my right upper thigh.i been in an out of hospitals since i was 12 years old.im am on the road to recovery!its been 4 months since ive cut last and im very proud of myself.this is just someone letting others know it is hard to stop, but if you care enough about yourself and your family that cares about you. YOU CAN STOP!

tera
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 24, 2006 @ 1:01 am
hi, my name is tera and i am 17 years old. from the time i was about 14 until i was 16 i was a cutter. EVERYTHING seems so great when i would cut, then when i was done i felt soooo bad/sad/angry at myself for doing it. What i'm getting at is the feeling you get from cutting, sort of like a high, only lasts for awhile. Please find other things in life that can get you that same feeling! like God, or friends, or music, or talking, or singing, or dancing, or camping, or reading, or drawing, or jumping! ANYTHING! i knwo you can do it! i just knwo you can! if i can stop...i knwo you can! i luv you and if you need to talk i am here 24/7 terajo89@hotmail.com add me on msn or e-mail! i will talk and listen! you can TRUST me. I've been there done that!
Steve
Report this comment as inappropriate
Aug 30, 2006 @ 4:16 pm
I have been cutting for quite sometime. I can not control my emotions and I feel the need to cut. It mostly happens at night when I can not sleep. My mind races and I feel a need to focus on something else. I don't think sucide should be an option for anybody. All my relationships have been failures to some degree. I can't stand being alone, but it seems that is the only way from hurting myself and other people.
motherhater
Report this comment as inappropriate
Sep 23, 2006 @ 9:21 pm
i have not cut for 6 months 1 week and 1 day! and makes me so furious. i know about all the bad things, infections death and what not but i still want to despratly i have been told it takes over 25 years for the urge to stop. i would rather die cutting then be in hel* for one more day!
Danna
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 31, 2006 @ 9:21 pm
hi my name is Dana and i`m a cutter for a year .I`m 14 and i know that i better stop but i can`t do it because every time when i think at people who hurt me all my whole life i think that i should better die ...i want despratly to stop but i can`t do this ... i hate myself for doing this but in the same time i love myslef for doing something that i really can .... my whole life was controled by my parents , i was beated treated like a rubbish by whole society .... now i don`t have either a mom because he left us ....i ca`t stop this i have to , i know this very well ... but i really can`t .... and either i would stop .... i know that the scars will still remain even in my soul ....
Lex
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 24, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
My name is Lex and I've been a cutter since I was eleven. I've been cutting on and off since the 8th grade and I'm about to start my junior year in high school. I have a very busy schedule and I only get a little bit of sleep at most. Cutting makes me really really tired so it almost instantly puts me to sleep when I'm thinking about all the things I have to do the next day. My parents ignore me and know that I cut but they don't really care. I don't trust any of my friends to tell them and I've become so distant with everyone that I don't think any of them would care. It's sad really when the only thing you have to live for is your next practice or appointment.
Suzanna
Report this comment as inappropriate
Jul 26, 2007 @ 12:00 am
I Have Been A Cutter For 6 Years Now And I Know It's Bad But I Can't Stop I Have # Sharps In My Room Can SomeOne Help Me??
Daniel
Report this comment as inappropriate
Dec 14, 2007 @ 12:00 am
You can call me crazy if you want too.
I'm nineteen years old and severly depressed.
I've lost interest in everything
I find ways to hurt myself
I cut and I'm seeing a therapist.
I have this sick urge to cut myself.
I can't stop these suicidal thoughts.
I hope I get better.
Somebody help me
I wish I never ever caught
I have scarred my soul
I wish I never gave in
helphelphelp

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA


Self-Mutilation forum