Rabies is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system that is transmitted through saliva from the bite of an infected animal.

Rabies Vaccine

Rabies vaccine is an injection that provides protection against the rabies virus that can be transmitted to humans via the saliva of an infected animal. Rabies is fatal in humans unless it is prevented with a vaccine.

Rape and Sexual Assault

Rape and sexual assault are crimes that involve the use of threats, fear tactics, and/or physical violence to force a child or adolescent to submit to sexual intercourse or to engage in other sexual activity (e.g., oral sex, anal sex).


The popular term for a group of spots or red, inflamed skin that is usually a symptom of an underlying condition or disorder. Often temporary, a rash is only rarely a sign of a serious problem.

Rat-Bite Fever

Rat-bite fever refers to an infection which develops in a person after being bitten or scratched by an infected animal.

Red Blood Cell Indices

Red blood cell (RBC) indices are calculations derived from the complete blood count that aid in the diagnosis and classification of anemia. Measurements needed to calculate indices are the red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit.

Reflex Tests

Reflex tests are simple physical tests of nervous system function.

Renal Vein Thrombosis

Renal vein thrombosis develops when a blood clot forms in the renal vein, which is the blood vessel that carries blood from the kidneys back to the heart. The disorder is not common.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn, also known as infant RDS, is an acute lung disease present at birth, which usually affects premature babies. Layers of tissue called hyaline membranes keep the oxygen that is breathed in from passing into the blood.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that can cause severe lower respiratory infections in children younger than two years of age and milder upper respiratory infections in older children and adults. RSV infection in young children is also called bronchiolitis, because it is marked by inflammation of the bronchioles, the narrow airways that lead from the large airways (bronchi) to the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs.

Retention in School

The term "retention" in regards to school means repeating an academic year of school. Retention in school is also called grade retention, being held back, or repeating a grade.


Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina that occurs predominantly in young children.

Reye's Syndrome

Reye's syndrome is a disorder principally affecting the liver and brain, marked by rapid development of life-threatening neurological symptoms.

Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an illness that arises as a complication of untreated or inadequately treated strep throat infection. Rheumatic fever can seriously damage the valves of the heart.


Rhinitis is inflammation of the mucous lining of the nose.


Ringworm is a common fungal infection of the skin. The name is a misnomer because the disease is not caused by a worm.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne illness caused by a bacteria, resulting in a high fever and a characteristic rash.


Roseola is a common disease of babies or young children, in which several days of very high fever are followed by a characteristic rash.

Rotavirus Infections

Rotavirus is the major cause of diarrhea and vomiting in young children worldwide. The infection is highly contagious and may lead to severe dehydration (loss of body fluids) and even death.


Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a highly contagious viral disease that in most children and adults causes mild symptoms of low fever, swollen glands, joint pain, and a fine red rash. Although rubella causes only mild symptoms in child and adult sufferers, the infection can have severe complications for the fetus of a woman who becomes infected with the virus during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Running Away

Running away involves being voluntarily absent from home at least overnight without permission from a parent or caretaker.