Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder caused by an abnormally low level of blood platelets, small disc-shaped cells essential to blood clotting (coagulation). ITP describes both the cause and symptoms of the condition: idiopathic means that the disorder has no apparent cause; thrombocytopenia refers to a decreased number of blood platelets; and purpura refers to a purplish or reddish-brown skin rash caused by the leakage into the skin of blood from broken capillaries.
Ileus is a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine.
Immobilization refers to the process of holding a joint or bone in place with a splint, cast, or brace. This is done to prevent an injured area from moving while it heals.
The child's immune system is an intricate network of interdependent cell types, substances, and organs that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections, and tumor cells.
Immunodeficiency disorders are a group of disorders in which part of the immune system is missing or defective. The body's ability to fight infections is, therefore, impaired.
Immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are a group of disorders that involve defects of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system, leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection. In these disorders, specific diseasefighting antibodies (immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgA, and IgM) are either missing or are present in reduced levels.
Impetigo refers to a very localized bacterial infection of the skin. There are two types, bullous and epidemic.
Impulse control disorders are a relatively new class of personality disorders characterized by an ongoing inability to resist impulses to perform actions that are harmful to oneself or others. The most common of these are intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive gambling disorder, and trichotillomania.
Inclusion conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, or white of the eye. In the neonate this condition is part of a larger group of eye diseases called neonatal conjunctivitis.
Infant massage is the process of rubbing an infant's muscles and stroking the infant in a manner specifically designed for them. Although there are professionally trained and certified infant massage therapists, the obvious first choice to massage the baby is the mother, father, grandparent, or guardian.
The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given population. In 2002, the United States' infant mortality rate varied widely by race of the mother from 14.3 for infants of black mothers to 5.9 for infants of Hispanic mothers to 5.8 for infants of white mothers.
Infectious mononucleosis is a contagious illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus that can affect the liver, lymph nodes, and oral cavity. While mononucleosis is not usually a serious disease, its primary symptoms of fatigue and lack of energy can linger for several months.
Usually referred to as the flu or grippe, influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease. The disease is caused by certain strains of the influenza virus.
Many children experience insect stings every year. For most of them, these stings only cause mild pain and discomfort lasting for just a period of hours.
Intelligence is an abstract concept whose definition continually evolves and often depends upon current social values as much as scientific ideas. Modern definitions refer to a variety of mental capabilities, including the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience, as well as the potential to do these things.
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a mental disturbance that is characterized by specific episodes of violent and aggressive behavior that may involve harm to others or destruction of property. IED is discussed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) under the heading of "Impulse-Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified." As such, it is grouped together with kleptomania, pyromania, and pathological gambling.
Intersex states are conditions where a newborn's sex organs (genitals) look unusual, making it impossible to identify the gender of the baby from its outward appearance.
Intestinal obstructions are a partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine, resulting in failure of the contents of the intestine to pass through the bowel normally.
The term intrauterine growth retardation (also known as intrauterine growth restriction)(IUGR) is generically defined as a fetus who is at or below the tenth percentile in weight for its gestational age. There are two factors necessary to define an IUGR fetus: first, the fetal weight is at or below the tenth percentile for gestational age and sex; second, there is a pathological process present that prevents expression of normal growth potential.
Intravenous rehydration is the process by which sterile water solutions containing small amounts of salt or sugar are injected into the body through a tube attached to a needle which is inserted into a vein.
Iron deficiency anemia refers to anemia that is caused by lower than normal levels of iron. This type of anemia is caused by deficient erythropoiesis, the ongoing process of the bone marrow to produce healthy red blood cells (RBCs).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal condition characterized by abdominal pain and cramps; changes in bowel movements (diarrhea, constipation, or both); gassiness; bloating; nausea; and other symptoms. There is no cure for IBS; however, dietary changes, stress management, and sometimes medications are often able to eliminate or substantially reduce its symptoms.
Itching is an intense, distracting irritation or tickling sensation that may be felt all over the skin's surface or confined to just one area. The medical term for itching is pruritus.
Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and/or whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin—a dark yellow-green or orange-red pigment—in the blood.
Juvenile arthritis (JA) refers to a number of different conditions, all of which strike children and all of which have joint inflammation as their major manifestation. The condition is also referred to as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Kawasaki syndrome is a potentially fatal inflammatory disease that affects several organ systems in the body, including the heart, circulatory system, mucous membranes, skin, and immune system. As of 2004 its cause was unknown.
Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosome disorder in males that results in hypogonadism (small penis and small firm testicles). People with this condition are born with at least one extra X chromosome.